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Hysteresis print that page


such as rubber bands and shape-memory alloys ) in response to a varying force. In natural systems hysteresis is often associated with irreversible thermodynamic change . Many artificial systems are designed to have hysteresis : for example, in thermostats and Schmitt triggers , hysteresis

Chaotic hysteresis print that page

A nonlinear dynamical system exhibits chaotic hysteresis if it simultaneously exhibits chaotic dynamics ( chaos theory ) and hysteresis . As the latter involves the persistence of a state, such as magnetization, after the causal or exogenous force or factor is removed, it involves multiple | 2011/5/14 21:27:31

Hysteresis (economics) print that page

In economics , hysteresis refers to the possibility that periods of high unemployment tend to increase the rate of unemployment below which inflation begins to accelerate, commonly referred to as the natural rate of unemployment or non-accelerating inflation rate of unemployment ( NAIRU | 2011/4/17 17:08:33

Remanence print that page

field after a large magnetic field is applied (enough to achieve saturation ). [ 1 ] A magnetic hysteresis loop is measured using instruments such as a vibrating sample magnetometer and the zero-field intercept is a measure of the remanence. In physics this measure is converted to an average | 2011/5/1 3:22:51

Preisach model of hysteresis print that page

The Preisach model of hysteresis generalizes hysteresis loops as the parallel connection of independent relay hysterons . It was first suggested in 1935 by Ferenc (Franz) Preisach [ 1 ] in the German academic journal " Zeitschrift für Physik " [ 2 ] . Since then, it has become a widely | 2010/9/25 15:07:27

Bouc-Wen model of hysteresis print that page

model 4.2 Two-degree-of freedom generalization 4.3 Wang and Wen modification 4.4 Asymmetric hysteresis 5 Calculation of the hysteretic response 6 Parameter constraints 7 Identification of parameters 8 References 9 Other links [ edit ] Model formulation Consider the | 2011/9/29 11:02:31

Crystal oscillator print that page


A crystal oscillator is an electronic oscillator circuit that uses the mechanical resonance of a vibrating crystal of piezoelectric material to create an electrical signal with a very precise frequency . This frequency is commonly used to keep track of time (as in quartz wristwatches

Operational amplifier print that page


An operational amplifier ("op-amp") is a DC - coupled high- gain electronic voltage amplifier with a differential input and, usually, a single-ended output. [ 1 ] An op-amp produces an output voltage that is typically hundreds of thousands times larger than the voltage difference between

Transmission electron microscopy print that page


TEMs are capable of imaging at a significantly higher resolution than light microscopes, owing to the small de Broglie wavelength of electrons. This enables the instrument's user to examine fine detail—even as small as a single column of atoms, which is tens of thousands times smaller than

Magnetic field print that page


A magnetic field is a field produced by moving electric charges , by electric fields that vary in time , and by the 'intrinsic' magnetic field of elementary particles associated with the spin of the particle. There are two separate but closely related fields to which the name 'magnetic